Jordan

 

Amman & The North

Amman

The capital since 1921, Amman contains about one-third of the population. It was formerly the Ammonite capital of Rabbath-Ammon and later the Graeco-Roman city of Philadelphia. Often referred to as the ‘white city’, Amman was originally, like Rome, built on seven hills which still form its natural focal points. With extensive modern building projects, Amman is now very well equipped with excellent hotels and tourist facilities, especially in the jabal (hill) areas. The central market (souk) is lively and interesting and provides  a taste of a more traditional city. Remains from Roman, Greek and Ottoman Turk occupations are dotted around the city, the main attraction being the Roman amphitheater from the second century AD in the center of the city. There is also the Jebel el Qalat (citadel) which houses the Archaeological Museum; the National Gallery of Fine Arts and the Popular Museum of Costume and Jewelry.

Owing to Jordan’s small size, any destination within the country may be reached by road from the capital, Amman, in one day.

 

Salt

Once the Biblical ‘Gilead’, Salt is now a small town set in the fertile landscape west of Amman, retaining much of its old character as a former leading city of Transjordan. Filled with the character, sights, sounds and aromas of an old Arab town with its narrow market (souk), its innumerable flights of steps, and its donkeys and coffee houses, it has a tolerant, friendly, oriental atmosphere. 24km (15 miles) from Amman is Iraq al-Amir, the only Hellenistic palace still to be seen in the Middle East.

 

Jerash

Less than one hour’s drive north of Amman through the picturesque hills of ancient Gilead is Jerash. A magnificent Graeco-Roman city on an ancient site, beautifully preserved by the desert sands, Jerash is justly famous for the Triumphal Arch, the Hippodrome, the great elliptical forum, the theaters, baths and gateways, the Roman bridge and the wide street of columns that lead to the Temple of Artemis. Son et lumière programs run in four different languages (Arabic, English, French and German). Other languages can be catered for upon request. For information on festivals in Jerash, see Special Events in the General Info section.

 

Umm Qais

In the far north of the country, Umm Qais, the Biblical ‘Gadara’, dominates the area around Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee). Once a city favored by the Romans for its hot springs and theaters, it had declined to a small village by the time of the Islamic conquests. Its ruins, however, are still impressive: the Acropolis built in 218 BC, the forum, the colonnaded street with still-visible chariot tracks and the Nymphaeum and remains of a large basilica.

 

Elsewhere in the North

Irbid, to the southeast of Umm Qais, is 77km (49 miles) from Amman and is a city of Roman tombs and statues, and narrow streets with close-packed shops and arched entrances.

Alternatively, return along the northwest border from Umm Qais to Jerash through the lush scenery of the Jordan River Valley, stopping at the town of Al Hammeh, in sight of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, a town known for its hot springs and mineral waters. Visitors can also stop at Pella, once a city of the Roman Decapolis, now being excavated, and the hilltop castle of Qalaat al-Rabadh built by the Arabs in defense against the crusaders. The scenery in this surprisingly fertile part of Jordan is often very beautiful, especially in the spring when the Jordan Valley and surrounding area is covered in flowers.

 

East of Amman

Towards Azraq and beyond is the vast desert which makes up so much of Jordan. Within this arid landscape are the fertile oases of the Shaumari and Azraq Wetland Parks, now run with the help of the World Wide Fund for Nature. Wild animals once native to Jordan, such as the oryx and gazelle, are being re-introduced, while the wetlands are visited by thousands of migratory birds each year. The Shaumari was opened in October 1983 in an attempt to protect the country’s dwindling oryx population. There are plans to open a further 10 wildlife reserves which will cover more than 4100 sq km (1580 sq miles). The project is being organized by the Jordanian Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, a body which has recently stepped up its efforts to protect the country’s wildlife and to prevent pollution affecting the very busy port of Aqaba. Severe fines are imposed on anyone contravening Jordan’s strict laws on these matters.

Also in the east are the desert Umayyad castles (Qasr) of Al-Kharanah and Amra. Built as hunting lodges and to protect caravan routes, they are well preserved with frescoes and beautiful vaulted rooms.

 

The South

The Dead Sea

The Dead Sea, 392m (1286ft) below sea level and the lowest point on earth, glistens by day and night in an eerie, dry landscape. The Biblical cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are thought to be beneath its waters. Supporting no life and having no outlet, even the non-swimmer can float freely in the rich salt water. The Dead Sea at the end of the River Jordan is the natural barrier between Jordan and the Palestinian National Authority Region.

 

The King’s Highway

There are three routes from Amman to Aqaba, the most picturesque being the King’s Highway, the whole length of which is dotted with places of interest. Madaba and nearby Mount Nebo, where Moses is said to have struck the rock, were both flourishing Byzantine towns and have churches and well-preserved mosaics. In Madaba, there are also ancient maps of sixth-century Palestine, a museum and an old family carpet-making industry which uses ancient looms. Off the Highway is Mukawir, a small village near the ruins of Machaerus of Herod Antipas, where Salome performed her fateful dance. From the summit of nearby Qasr al-Meshneque, where St John was beheaded, is a magnificent view of the Dead Sea, and sometimes even of Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Nearby, Zarqa Main has hot mineral water springs. Rugged scenery characterizes this area: deep gorges, waterfalls, white rocks, small oases, birds and wild flowers. Further south on the Highway is Kerak, a beautiful medieval town surrounded by high walls and with a castle. Other places of historical, scenic or religious interest along the route before Petra include Mazar and Mutah, Edomite Qasr Buseirah, Tafila and the magnificent crusader hill fortress, Shaubek Castle.

 

Petra

Petra is one of the wonders of the Middle-Eastern world: a gigantic natural amphitheater hidden in the rocks out of which a delicately colored city with immense facades has been carved; it was lost for hundreds of years and only rediscovered in 1812. The temples and caves of Petra rest high up above a chasm, with huge white rocks forming the Bab, or gate, of the Siq, the narrow entrance which towers over 21m (70ft) high. Until recently, the rock caves were still inhabited by Bedouins. Most of this unique city was built by the Nabatean Arabs in the fifth and sixth centuries BC as an important link in the caravan routes. It was added to by the Romans who carved out a huge theater and, possibly, the spectacular classical facade of the Khazneh (treasury). Away from the road, it is only possible to reach Petra on horseback. This city of rock stairs, rock streets, rock-carved tombs and dwellings and temples has among its other attractions the Qasr al-Bint castle shrine and the Al-Habis caves and museums; while a short distance away from the more commercialized site of Petra is Al-Barid where a number of tombs lie in solitude and tranquility among the rocks. There is a rest house in Petra built against the rock wall near the beginning of the Siq, where it is advisable to book early in season, but is bitterly cold in winter. A variety of hotels offer accommodation. The last stop south before Aqaba is Wadi Rum, about five hours from Amman by road. A Beau Geste-type fort run by the colorful Desert Patrol (Camel Corps), it was built to defend the valley in a great plain of escarpments and desert wilderness, and is a place strongly associated with TE Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia). Many Bedouins, of a tribe thought to be descended from Muhammad, still live in the valley in tents. Some tours will arrange trips into the desert to stay with a Bedouin tribe or camping in the valley, a round-trip entailing 97km (60 miles).

 

Aqaba

At the northeast end of the Gulf of Aqaba is Jordan’s only port, which can be reached from Amman by road or air. It has grown considerably over the past few years, both as a port and as a tourist center, due in part to its excellent beach and watersports facilities, and its low humidity and hot climate. The town has a variety of small shops and several good restaurants, and it leaves most of the other tourist facilities to be provided for by the hotels. These include windsurfing, scuba diving, sailing and fishing. Most hotels have swimming pools, and will offer continental and some traditional cuisine. Some provide business and conference facilities and excursions to Amman, Petra and Wadi Rum. Aqaba’s Church, which was destroyed by an earthquake in 363 AD, was recently excavated and is one of the oldest buildings in the world.

Watersports

The coast south of Aqaba, on the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba, is teeming with tropical fish and coral and is renowned for its excellent year-round diving and snorkeling. The coral reefs are often very close to shore and the water temperature rarely falls below 20°C (68°F). There are several dive centers at Aqaba offering PADI courses, equipment rental and boat tours. It is forbidden to remove coral or shells, or to use harpoon guns and fishing spears. Aqaba’s beaches, notably the Aquamarine or Holiday Beach, offer good swimming. Dolphin-, shark-and whale-watching trips can also be arranged.

 

Hiking

One of the best destinations is Wadi Rum, a vast area of dry riverbeds, mountains, black hills and sand dunes, located some 50km (30 miles) northeast of Aqaba, and a location for the film Lawrence of Arabia. Camel treks and jeep trips into the desert are also available, as are hot-air balloon trips over Wadi Rum’s Valley of the Moon.

Limited hiking equipment and supplies can be rented in the village of Rum; the nearest town is Quweirah.

 

Wildlife

There are 10 designated wildlife reserves in Jordan, the best being the Azraq Wetland Wildlife Reserve (whose oasis is home to over 300 species of birds), and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve. Both can be visited on day trips from Amman. Animals that can be seen include hyenas, red wolves, jerboas, gazelles, ostriches and Arabian oryxes.

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